Internal Controls

In file transfer, the term “internal controls” refers to both technology and manual (human-performed) procedures used to mitigate against risk.  Examples of typical internal technology include firewalls, secure file transfer software and standalone encryption packages.  Examples of manual internal control procedures include background checks, “multiple signer” document approval workflows and training to steer people away from risky behavior (such as “certificate spills“).

See also “cyber liability“.

Internet Explorer

Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (“IE”) is a free web browser that is installed by default on all Microsoft Windows desktop and server operating systems, including Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008.

As of December 2010, IE held about 47% of the desktop browser market, making it the #1 browser ahead of Firefox.  IE relies on individual end users and corporate IT departments to push out major browser updates.  In practice, this means that it takes about a year after release for each new major version to become the dominant version of IE in the market.

IE’s native FTP capabilities allow it to connect to FTP servers using both active and passive mode and upload or download specific files as anonymous or authenticated users with passwords.

Internet Explorer’s official web site is

BEST PRACTICE: All credible file transfer applications that offer browser support for administrative, reporting or end user interfaces should support the Internet Explorer web browser, and file transfer vendors should commit to supporting any new IE browser version within one year of its release.   Furthermore, file transfer vendors that offer plain old FTP access should support the Internet Explorer interface, including its tight integration into underlying Windows desktop operating systems.


IPv6 is the name of the networking protocol which is rapidly replacing the use of IPv4 in wake of widespread IPv4 exhaustion.  IPv6 is defined in 1998′s RFC 2460.

IPv6 addresses are written in “colon notation” like “fe80:1343:4143:5642:6356:3452:5343:01a4″ rather than the “dot notation” used by IPv4 addresses such as ”″.  IPv6 DNS entries are handled through “AAAA” entries rather than “A” entries under IPv4.

BEST PRACTICES: All FTP technology should now support an RFC 2428 implementation of IPv6 and the EPSV (and EPRT) commands under both IPv4 and IPv6.  Until IPv4 is entirely retired, the use of technology that supports both IPv4 and IPv6 implementations of FTP is preferred. Avoid using FTP over connections that automatically switch from IPv6 to IPv4 or visa versa.   (Read more…)

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